Guía de Práctica Clínica sobre Cuidados Paliativos.

V. resumida | Consulta rápida

  1. Introducción
  2. Alcance y objetivos
  3. Metodología de la guía
  4. Introducción a los cuidados paliativos
  5. Información, comunicación y toma de decisiones
  6. Control de síntomas
  7. Apoyo psicosocial y espiritual a la persona en FFV
  8. Apoyo psicosocial a la familia
  9. Atención en los últimos días. Agonía
  10. Sedación paliativa
  11. Duelo
  12. Anexos
  13. Bibliografía
  14. Listado completo de tablas y figuras

Abre nueva ventana: Bibliografía en versión pdf Descargar GPC Cuidados Paliativos (4,09 Mb)

Bibliografía

Listado

  1. Estrategia en Cuidados Paliativos. Sistema Nacional de Salud. Madrid: Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo; 2007.
  2. Higginson IJ. Evidence based palliative care. There is some evidence-and there needs to be more. BMJ. 1999;319(7208):462-3.
  3. Villard ML, Carlin N, Laval G, Schaerer R. [Patients hospitalized in advanced or terminal phase of a serious life-threatening disease]. Presse Med. 2003;32(5):203-11.
  4. Salomon L, Belouet C, Vinant-Binam P, Sicard D, Vidal-Trecan G. A terminal care support team in a Paris university hospital: care providers’ views. J Palliat Care. 2001;17(2):109-16.
  5. Callahan D. Death and the Research Imperative. N Engl J Med. 2000;342(9):654-6.
  6. Ley 16/2003, de 28 de mayo, de cohesión y calidad del Sistema Nacional de Salud. BOE n.º 128, p. 20567-88 (29 mayo, 2003). ed. 2002.
  7. Grupo de trabajo de Tratamientos del Programa Regional de Cuidados Paliativos del Servicio Extremeño de Salud. Sedación en Cuidados Paliativos. Consejería de Sanidad y Consumo. Junta de Extremadura; 2004.
  8. Grupo de trabajo de Tratamientos del Programa Regional de Cuidados Paliativos del Servicio Extremeño de Salud. Seguimiento del duelo en cuidados paliativos. Consejería de Sanidad y Consumo. Junta de Extremadura; 2004.
  9. Pascual A, Subirana M. Guia de pràctica clínica per a látenció pal.liativa al malat en fase terminala l´hospital de la Santa creu i Sant Pau. Barcelona; 2005.
  10. Guidelines for a Palliative Approach in Residential Aged care. Canberra: The National Palliative Care Program. National Health and Medical Research Council; 2006.
  11. Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI). Heath Care Guideline: Palliative Care. Bloomington (MN): Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI); 2007.
  12. Improving Supportive and Palliative Care for Adults with Cancer. London: National Institute for Clinical Evidence; 2004.
  13. World Health Organization. WHO definition of palliative care. Disponible en: http://www.who.int/cancer/palliative/definition/en/ [Acceso marzo 2007].
  14. Jocham HR, Dassen T, Widdershoven G, Halfens R. Quality of life in palliative care cancer patients: a literature review. J Clin Nurs. 2006;15(9):1188-95.
  15. Gill TM, Feinstein AR. A critical appraisal of the quality of quality-of-life measurements. JAMA. 1994;272(8):619-26.
  16. Agra Y, Badia X. Evaluación de las propiedades psicométricas de la versión española del Rotterdam Symptom Checklist para medir calidad de vida en personas con cáncer. Rev Esp Salud Publica. 1999;73(1):35-44.
  17. Serra-Prat M, Nabal M, Santacruz V, Picaza JM, Trelis J. Traducción, adaptación y validación de la Palliative Care Outcome Scale al español. Med Clin (Barc). 2004;123(11):406-12.
  18. Groenvold M, Petersen MA, Aaronson NK, Arraras JI, Blazeby JM, Bottomley A, et al. The development of the EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL: a shortened questionnaire for cancer patients in palliative care. Eur J Cancer. 2006;42(1):55-64.
  19. 19. Cherby N. The challenge of palliative medicine. In: Doyle D, Hanks G, Chreney N, Calman K, editors. Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine. Third ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2004.
  20. Chapman CR, Gavrin J. Suffering and its relationship to pain. J Palliat Care. 1993;9(2):5-13.
  21. Bayés R. Una estrategia para la detección del sufrimiento en la práctica clínica. Revista de la Sociedad Española del Dolor. 2000;(7):70-4.
  22. Barbero J. Sufrimiento, cuidados paliativos y responsabilidad moral. In: Couceiro A, editor. Ética en Cuidados Paliativos.Madrid: Editorial Triacastela; 2004. p. 426-7.
  23. Couceiro A. Las voluntades anticipadas en España: contenido, límites y aplicaciones clínicas. Revista Española de Calidad Asistencial. 2007;22(4):213-22.
  24. Babarro 44. ¿Deben contar los programas de cuidados paliativos con equipos de soporte en atención primaria? Ate Primaria. 2006;38(6):323-4.
  25. Finlay IG, Higginson IJ, Goodwin DM, Cook AM, Edwards AGK, Hood K, et al. Palliative care in hospital, hospice, at home: Results from a systematic review. Annals of Oncology. 2002;13(SUPPL. 4):257-64.
  26. Higginson IJ, Finlay I, Goodwin DM, Cook AM, Hood K, Edwards AGK, et al. Do hospital-based palliative teams improve care for patients or families at the end of life? Journal of Pain & Symptom Management. 2002;23(2):96-106.
  27. Smeenk FW, van Haastregt JC, de Witte LP, Crebolder HF. Effectiveness of home care programmes for patients with incurable cancer on their quality of life and time spent in hospital: systematic review. BMJ. 1998;316(7149):1939-44.
  28. Higginson IJ, Finlay IG, Goodwin DM, Hood K, Edwards AGK, Cook A, et al. Is there evidence that palliative care teams alter end-of-life experiences of patients and their caregivers? Journal of Pain & Symptom Management. 2003;25(2):150-68.
  29. Rocafort GJ, Herrera ME, Fernandez BF, Grajera Paredes Maria ME, Redondo Moralo MJ, Diaz DF, et al. Equipos de soporte de cuidados paliativos y dedicación de los equipos de atención primaria a pacientes en situación terminal en sus domicilios. Aten Primaria. 2006;38(6):316-23.
  30. Herrera E, Rocafort J, Cuervo Pinna MA, Redondo Moralo MJ. Primer nivel asistencial en cuidados paliativos: evolución del contenido de la cartera de servicios de atención primaria y criterios de derivación al nivel de soporte. Aten Primaria. 2006;38 Suppl 2:85-92.
  31. Glare P, Christakis N. Predicting survival in patients with advanced disease. In: Doyle D, Hanks G, Chreney N, Calman K, editors. Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine. Third ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2004.
  32. Maltoni M, Caraceni A, Brunelli C, Broeckaert B, Christakis N, Eychmueller S, et al. Prognostic Factors in Advanced Cancer Patients: Evidence-Based Clinical Recommendations--A Study by the Steering Committee of the European Association for Palliative Care. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(25):6240-8.
  33. Glare P, Virik K, Jones M, Hudson M, Eychmuller S, Simes J, et al. A systematic review of physicians’ survival predictions in terminally ill cancer patients. BMJ. 2003;327(7408):195.
  34. Vigano A, Dorgan M, Buckingham J, Bruera E, Suarez-Almazor ME. Survival prediction in terminal cancer patients: A systematic review of the medical literature. Palliative Medicine. 2000;14(5):363-74.
  35. Maltoni M, Nanni O, Pirovano M, Scarpi E, Indelli M, Martini C, et al. Successful Validation of the Palliative Prognostic Score in Terminally Ill Cancer Patients. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 1999;17(4):240-7.
  36. Pirovano M, Maltoni M, Nanni O, Marinari M, Indelli M, Zaninetta G, et al. A new palliative prognostic score: a first step for the staging of terminally ill cancer patients. Italian Multicenter and Study Group on Palliative Care. J Pain Symptom Manage. 1999;17(4):231-9.
  37. Morita T, Tsunoda J, Inoue S, Chihara S. The Palliative Prognostic Index: a scoring system for survival prediction of terminally ill cancer patients. Support Care Cancer. 1999;7(3):128-33.
  38. Coventry PA, Grande GE, Richards DA, Todd CJ. Prediction of appropriate timing of palliative care for older adults with non-malignant life-threatening disease: A systematic review. Age & Ageing. 2005;34(3):218-27.
  39. Walter LC, Brand RJ, Counsell SR, Palmer RM, Landefeld CS, Fortinsky RH, et al. Development and Validation of a Prognostic Index for 1-Year Mortality in Older Adults After Hospitalization. JAMA. 2001;285(23):2987-94.
  40. Katz S, Ford A, Moskowitz RW, Jackson B, Jaffe M. Studies of illness in the aged. the index of ADL: a standardized measure of biological and psychosocial function. JAMA. 1963;185:914-9.
  41. Charlson ME, Pompei P, Ales KL, MacKenzie CR. A new method of classifying prognostic comorbidity in longitudinal studies: Development and validation. Journal of Chronic Diseases. 1987;40(5):373-83.
  42. Fischer SM, Gozansky WS, Sauaia A, Min SJ, Kutner JS, Kramer A. A practical tool to identify patients who may benefit from a palliative approach: the CARING criteria. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2006;31(4)285-92.
  43. Knaus WA, Harrell FE, Lynn J, Goldman L, Phillips RS, Connors AF, et al. The SUPPORT Prognostic Model: Objective Estimates of Survival for Seriously Ill Hospitalized Adults. Ann Intern Med. 1995;122(3):191-203.
  44. Stuart B, Alexander C, Arenella C. Medical guidelines for determining prognosis in selected non-cancer diseases, 2nd edition. Arlington,VA: National Hospice Organization; 1996.
  45. Celli BR, Cote CG, Marin JM, Casanova C, Montes de Oca M, Mendez RA, et al. The Body-Mass Index, Airflow Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise Capacity Index in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. N Engl J Med. 2004;350(10):1005-12.
  46. Levy WC, Mozaffarian D, Linker DT, Sutradhar SC, Anker SD, Cropp AB, et al. The Seattle Heart Failure Model: Prediction of Survival in Heart Failure. Circulation. 2006;113(11):1424-33.
  47. Kamath PS, Wiesner RH, Malinchoc M, Kremers W, Therneau TM, Kosberg CL, et al. A model to predict survival in patients with end-stage liver disease. Hepatology. 2001;33(2):464-70.
  48. Glare PA, Eychmueller S, McMahon P. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Palliative Prognostic Score in Hospitalized Patients With Advanced Cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22(23):4823-8.
  49. Parker SM, Clayton JM, Hancock K, Walder S, Butow PN, Carrick S, et al. A Systematic Review of Prognostic/End-of-Life Communication with Adults in the Advanced Stages of a Life-Limiting Illness: Patient/Caregiver Preferences for the Content, Style, and Timing of Information. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 2007;34(1):81-93.
  50. Fainsinger RL, Nunez-Olarte JM, Demoissac DM. The cultural differences in perceived value of disclosure and cognition: Spain and Canada. J Palliat Care. 2003;19(1):43-8.
  51. Fellowes D, Wilkinson S, Moore P. Communication skills training for health care professionals working with cancer patients, their families and/or carers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(2):CD003751.
  52. Kirk P, Kirk I, Kristjanson LJ. What do patients receiving palliative care for cancer and their families want to be told? A Canadian and Australian qualitative study. BMJ. 2004;328(7452):1343.
  53. McPherson CJ, Higginson IJ, Hearn J. Effective methods of giving information in cancer: a systematic literature review of randomized controlled trials. J Public Health Med. 2001;23(3):227-34.
  54. Bruera E, Neumann CM, Mazzocato C, Stiefel F, Sala R. Attitudes and beliefs of palliative care physicians regarding communication with terminally ill cancer patients. Palliat Med. 2000;14(4):287-98.
  55. Stewart MA. Effective physician-patient communication and health outcomes: a review. CMAJ. 1995;152(9):1423-33.
  56. Mills ME, Sullivan K. The importance of information giving for patients newly diagnosed with cancer: a review of the literature. J Clin Nurs. 1999;8(6):631-42.
  57. Fallowfield L. Communication with the patient and family in palliative medicine. In: Doyle D, Hanks G, Chreney N, Calman K, editors. Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine. Third ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2004.
  58. Fallowfield LJ, Hall A, Maguire GP, Baum M. Psychological outcomes of different treatment policies in women with early breast cancer outside a clinical trial. BMJ. 1990;301(6752):575-80. 59. Buckman R. Breaking bad news: why is it still so difficult? Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1984;288(6430):1597-9.
  59. Buckman R. Breaking bad news: why is it still so difficult? Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1984;288(6430):1597-9.
  60. Bugge E, Higginson IJ. Palliative care and the need for education - Do we know what makes a difference? A limited systematic review. Health Education Journal. 2006;65(2):101-25.
  61. Lizarraga MS, Ayarra EM, Cabodevilla E, I. La comunicación como piedra angular de la atención al paciente oncológico avanzado. Bases para mejorar nuestras habilidades. Aten Primaria. 2006;38 Suppl 2:7-13.
  62. VandeKieft GK. Breaking bad news. Am Fam Physician. 2001;64(12):1975-8. 63. Rabow MW, McPhee SJ. Beyond breaking bad news: how to help patients who suffer. West J Med. 1999;171(4):260-3.
  63. Rabow MW, McPhee SJ. Beyond breaking bad news: how to help patients who suffer. West J Med. 1999;171(4):260-3.
  64. Baile WF, Buckman R, Lenzi R, Glober G, Beale EA, Kudelka AP. SPIKES-A six-step protocol for delivering bad news: application to the patient with cancer. Oncologist. 2000;5(4):302-11.
  65. Back AL, Arnold RM, Baile WF, Fryer-Edwards KA, Alexander SC, Barley GE, et al. Efficacy of communication skills training for giving bad news and discussing transitions to palliative care. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167(5):453-60.
  66. Delvaux N, Merckaert I, Marchal S, Libert Y, Conradt S, Boniver J, et al. Physicians’ communication with a cancer patient and a relative: a randomized study assessing the efficacy of consolidation workshops. Cancer. 2005;103(11):2397-411.
  67. Razavi D, Merckaert I, Marchal S, Libert Y, Conradt S, Boniver J, et al. How to optimize physicians’ communication skills in cancer care: results of a randomized study assessing the usefulness of posttraining consolidation workshops. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21(16):3141-9.
  68. Barbero J. El derecho del paciente a la información: el arte de comunicar. Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra Suplementos. 2006;29(Supl.3):19-27.
  69. Alonso BA. Atención a la familia. Aten Primaria. 2006;38 Suppl 2:14-20.
  70. Centeno CC, Nuñez Olarte JM. Estudios sobre la comunicación del diagnóstico de cáncer en España. Med Clin (Barc). 1998;110(19):744-50.
  71. Astudillo W, Clavé E, Urdaneta E. Necesidades psicosociales en la terminalidad. 1ª edición. En: Sociedad Vasca de Cuidados Paliativos, editor. San Sebastián: 2001.
  72. Couceiro A. El enfermo terminal y las decisiones en torno al final de la vida. In: Couceiro A, editor. Ética en Cuidados Paliativos.Madrid: Editorial Triacastela; 2004. p. 426-7.
  73. Medical futility in end-of-life care: report of the Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs. JAMA. 1999;281(10):937-41.
  74. Arce Garcia MC. Problemas éticos en cuidados paliativos. Aten Primaria. 2006;38 Suppl 2:79-84.
  75. Lorda S. El consentimiento informado: alianza y contrato, deliberación y decisión. In: Couceiro A, editor. Ética en Cuidados Paliativos. Madrid: Editorial Triacastela; 2004. p. 426-7.
  76. Fried TR, O’leary J, Van NP, Fraenkel L. Inconsistency over time in the preferences of older persons with advanced illness for life-sustaining treatment. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2007;55(7):1007-14.
  77. Shalowitz DI, Garrett-Mayer E, Wendler D. The accuracy of surrogate decision makers: a systematic review. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(5):493-7.
  78. Bruera E, Sweeney C, Calder K, Palmer L, isch-Tolley S. Patient preferences versus physician perceptions of treatment decisions in cancer care. J Clin Oncol. 2001;19(11):2883-5.
  79. Solano JP, Gomes B, Higginson IJ. A comparison of symptom prevalence in far advanced cancer, AIDS, heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and renal disease. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2006;31(1):58-69.
  80. Verger E, Conill C, Pedro A, Chicote S, Salamero M, de AP, et al. Cuidados paliativos en pacientes oncológicos. Frecuencia y prioridad de síntomas. Med Clin (Barc). 1992;99(15):565-7.
  81. Kirkova J, Davis MP, Walsh D, Tiernan E, O’leary N, LeGrand SB, et al. Cancer symptom assessment instruments: a systematic review. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24(9):1459-73.
  82. Bruera E, Kuehn N, Miller MJ, Selmser P, Macmillan K. The Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS): a simple method for the assessment of palliative care patients. J Palliat Care. 1991;7(2):6-9.
  83. Carvajal A, Centeno C, Urdiroz J, Martínez M, Noguera A, Portela MA. Cross Cultural Adaptation of the Spanish Version of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment (ESAS). European Journal of Palliative Care 2007, 10th Congress of the European Association for Palliative Care, Budapest (Book of Abstract, Poster abstracts):
  84. Hanks G, Robers C, Davoes A. Principles of drug use in palliative medicine. In: Doyle D, Hanks G, Chreney N, Calman K, editors. Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine. Third ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2004.
  85. Fonzo-Christe C, Vukasovic C, Wasilewski-Rasca AF, Bonnabry P. Subcutaneous administration of drugs in the elderly: survey of practice and systematic literature review. Palliat Med. 2005;19(3):208-19.
  86. Vervest AC, Schimmel GH. Taxonomy of pain of the IASP. Pain. 1988;34(3):318-21.
  87. Breitbart W, Payne D, Passik SD. Psychological and psychiatric interventions in pain control. In: Doyle D, Hanks G, Chreney N, Calman K, editors. Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine. Third ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2004.
  88. Control of pain in patients with cancer. Draft Guideline. Edinburgh: Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN); 2007.
  89. Carr DB, Goudas LC, Balk EM, Bloch R, Ioannidis JP, Lau J. Evidence report on the treatment of pain in cancer patients. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 2004;(32):23-31.
  90. Caraceni A, Cherny N, Fainsinger R, Kaasa S, Poulain P, Radbruch L, et al. Pain measurement tools and methods in clinical research in palliative care: recommendations of an Expert Working Group of the European Association of Palliative Care. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2002;23(3):239-55.
  91. Zwakhalen SM, Hamers JP, bu-Saad HH, Berger MP. Pain in elderly people with severe dementia: a systematic review of behavioural pain assessment tools. BMC Geriatr. 2006;6:3.
  92. McNicol E, Strassels SA, Goudas L, Lau J, Carr DB. NSAIDS or paracetamol, alone or combined with opioids, for cancer pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;(1):CD005180.
  93. Nicholson AB. Methadone for cancer pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(2):CD003971.
  94. Wiffen PJ, Edwards JE, Barden J, McQuay HJ. Oral morphine for cancer pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(4):CD003868.
  95. Jadad AR, Browman GP. The WHO analgesic ladder for cancer pain management. Stepping up the quality of its evaluation. JAMA. 1995;274(23):1870-3.
  96. Azevedo Sao Leao FK, Kimura M, Jacobsen TM. The WHO analgesic ladder for cancer pain control, twenty years of use. How much pain relief does one get from using it? Support Care Cancer. 2006;14(11):1086-93.
  97. Miguel R. Interventional treatmente of cancer Pain:The Fourth Step in the World Health Organization Analgesic Ladder? Cancer Control. 2000;7(2):149-56.
  98. Williams JE, Louw G, Towlerton G. Intrathecal pumps for giving opioids in chronic pain: a systematic review. Health Technol Assess. 2000;4(32):iii-65.
  99. Smith TJ, Staats PS, Deer T, Stearns LJ, Rauck RL, Boortz-Marx RL, et al. Randomized clinical trial of an implantable drug delivery system compared with comprehensive medical management for refractory cancer pain: impact on pain, drug-related toxicity, and survival. J Clin Oncol. 2002;20(19):4040-9.
  100. Stearns L, Boortz-Marx R, Du PS, Friehs G, Gordon M, Halyard M, et al. Intrathecal drug delivery for the management of cancer pain: a multidisciplinary consensus of best clinical practices. J Support Oncol. 2005;3(6):399-408.
  101. Leppert W, Luczak J. The role of tramadol in cancer pain treatment--a review. Support Care Cancer. 2005;13(1):5-17.
  102. Reid CM, Martin RM, Sterne JAC, Davies AN, Hanks GW. Oxycodone for cancer-related pain: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2006;166(8):837-43.
  103. Moore RA, McQuay HJ. Prevalence of opioid adverse events in chronic non-malignant pain: systematic review of randomised trials of oral opioids. Arthritis Res Ther. 2005;7(5):R1046-R1051.
  104. McNicol E, Horowicz-Mehler N, Fisk RA, Bennett K, Gialeli-Goudas M, Chew PW, et al. Management of opioid side effects in cancer-related and chronic noncancer pain: a systematic review. J Pain. 2003;4(5):231-56.
  105. Cherny N, Ripamonti C, Pereira J, Davis C, Fallon M, McQuay H, et al. Strategies to manage the adverse effects of oral morphine: an evidence-based report. J Clin Oncol. 2001;19(9):2542-54.
  106. 106. Quigley C. Opioid switching to improve pain relief and drug tolerability. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;CD004847.
  107. Mercadante S, Bruera E. Opioid switching: a systematic and critical review. Cancer Treat Rev. 2006;32(4):304-15.
  108. Allan L, Hays H, Jensen NH, de-Waroux BL, Bolt M, Donald R, et al. Randomised crossover trial of transdermal fentanyl and sustained release oral morphine for treating chronic non-cancer pain. BMJ. 2001;322:1154-8.
  109. Ahmedzai S, Brooks D. Transdermal fentanyl versus sustained-release oral morphine in cancer pain: preference, efficacy, and quality of life. The TTS-Fentanyl Comparative Trial Group. Journal of pain and symptom management. 1997;13:254-61.
  110. Lussier D, Portenoy RK. Adjuvant analgesics in pain management. In: Doyle D, Hanks G, Chreney N, Calman K, editors. Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine. Third ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2004.
  111. Mercadante SL, Berchovich M, Casuccio A, Fulfaro F, Mangione S. A prospective randomized study of corticosteroids as adjuvant drugs to opioids in advanced cancer patients. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2007;24(1):13-9.
  112. Bell R, Eccleston C, Kalso E. Ketamine as an adjuvant to opioids for cancer pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(1):CD003351.
  113. Saarto T, Wiffen PJ. Antidepressants for neuropathic pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;(3):CD005454.
  114. Lee H, Schmidt K, Ernst E. Acupuncture for the relief of cancer-related pain--a systematic review. Eur J Pain. 2005;9(4):437-44.
  115. Martínez Pecino M, Sola I, Nishishinya M. Eficacia de la acupuntura en el dolor crónico y cuidados paliativos. Consejería de Salud de la Junta de Andalucía; 2006.
  116. Cepeda MS, Carr DB, Lau J, Alvarez H. Music for pain relief. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;(2):CD004843.
  117. Fellowes D, Barnes K, Wilkinson S. Aromatherapy and massage for symptom relief in patients with cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(2):CD002287.
  118. Pan CX, Morrison RS, Ness J, Fugh-Berman A, Leipzig RM. Complementary and alternative medicine in the management of pain, dyspnea, and nausea and vomiting near the end of life. A systematic review. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2000;20(5):374-87.
  119. Lafferty WE, Downey L, McCarty RL, Standish LJ, Patrick DL. Evaluating CAM treatment at the end of life: a review of clinical trials for massage and meditation. Complement Ther Med. 2006;14(2):100-12.
  120. Wareham D. Postherpetic neuralgia. Clin Evid. 2005;(14):1017-25. 121. Wiffen P, Collins S, McQuay H, Carroll D, Jadad A, Moore A. Anticonvulsant drugs for acute and chronic pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;(3):CD001133.
  121. Wiffen P, Collins S, McQuay H, Carroll D, Jadad A, Moore A. Anticonvulsant drugs for acute and chronic pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;(3):CD001133.
  122. Wiffen PJ, McQuay HJ, Edwards JE, Moore RA. Gabapentin for acute and chronic pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;(3):CD005452.
  123. Duhmke RM, Cornblath DD, Hollingshead JR. Tramadol for neuropathic pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(2):CD003726.
  124. Eisenberg E, McNicol E, Carr DB. Opioids for neuropathic pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;3:CD006146.
  125. Wong Mc, Chung JWY, Wong TKS. Effects of treatments for symptoms of painful diabetic neuropathy: systematic review. BMJ. 2007;335(7610):87.
  126. Mason L, Moore RA, Derry S, Edwards JE, McQuay HJ. Systematic review of topical capsaicin for the treatment of chronic pain. BMJ. 2004;328(7446):991.
  127. Gilron I, Bailey JM, Tu D, Holden RR, Weaver DF, Houlden RL. Morphine, gabapentin, or their combination for neuropathic pain. N Engl J Med. 2005;352(13):1324-34.
  128. Zeppetella G, Ribeiro MD. Opioids for the management of breakthrough (episodic) pain in cancer patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;(1):CD004311.
  129. Coluzzi PH, Schwartzberg L, Conroy JD, Charapata S, Gay M, Busch MA, et al. Breakthrough cancer pain: a randomized trial comparing oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC) and morphine sulfate immediate release (MSIR). Pain. 2001;91(1-2):123-30.
  130. Martinez-Zapata MJ, Roque M, onso-Coello P, Catala E. Calcitonin for metastatic bone pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;3:CD003223.
  131. Wong R, Wiffen PJ. Bisphosphonates for the relief of pain secondary to bone metastases. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(2):CD002068.
  132. Ross JR, Saunders Y, Edmonds PM, Patel S, Broadley KE, Johnston SRD. Systematic review of role of bisphosphonates on skeletal morbidity in metastatic cancer. BMJ. 2003;327(7413):469.
  133. Yuen KK, Shelley M, Sze WM, Wilt T, Mason MD. Bisphosphonates for advanced prostate cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;(4):CD006250.
  134. Pavlakis N, Schmidt R, Stockler M. Bisphosphonates for breast cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;(3):CD003474.
  135. Rosen LS, Gordon DH, Dugan W, Jr., Major P, Eisenberg PD, Provencher L, et al. Zoledronic acid is superior to pamidronate for the treatment of bone metastases in breast carcinoma patients with at least one osteolytic lesion. Cancer. 2004;100(1):36-43.
  136. McQuay HJ, Collins SL, Carroll D, Moore RA. Radiotherapy for the palliation of painful bone metastases. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD001793.
  137. Wai MS, Mike S, Ines H, Malcolm M. Palliation of metastatic bone pain: single fraction versus multifraction radiotherapy - a systematic review of the randomised trials. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(2):CD004721.
  138. Chow E, Harris K, Fan G, Tsao M, Sze WM. Palliative Radiotherapy Trials for Bone Metastases: A Systematic Review. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25(11):1423-36.
  139. Roque M, Martinez MJ, Alonso P, Catala E, Garcia JL, Ferrandiz M. Radioisotopes for metastatic bone pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(4):CD003347.
  140. Finlay IG, Mason MD, Shelley M. Radioisotopes for the palliation of metastatic bone cancer: a systematic review. The Lancet Oncology. 2005;6(6):392-400.
  141. Sweeney C, Neuenschwnader H, Bruera E. Fatigue and asthenia. In: Doyle D, Hanks G, Chreney N, Calman K, editors. Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine. Third ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2004.
  142. Strasser F. Pathophysiology of the anorexia/caquexia syndrome. In: Doyle D, Hanks G, Chreney N, Calman K, editors. Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine. Third ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2004.
  143. Mock V. Evidence-based treatment for cancer-related fatigue. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 2004;(32):112-8.
  144. Bohlius J, Wilson J, Seidenfeld J, Piper M, Schwarzer G, Sandercock J, et al. Erythropoietin or darbepoetin for patients with cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;3:CD003407.
  145. Del Fabbro E, Dalal S, Bruera E. Symptom control in palliative care--Part II: cachexia/anorexia and fatigue. J Palliat Med. 2006;9(2):409-21.
  146. Shragge JE, Wismer WV, Olson KL, Baracos VE. The management of anorexia by patients with advanced cancer: a critical review of the literature. Palliat Med. 2006;20(6):623-9.
  147. Berenstein EG, Ortiz Z. Megestrol acetate for the treatment of anorexia-cachexia syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;(2):CD004310.
  148. Yavuzsen T, Davis MP, Walsh D, LeGrand S, Lagman R. Systematic review of the treatment of cancer-associated anorexia and weight loss. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(33):8500-11.
  149. Brown JK. A systematic review of the evidence on symptom management of cancer-related anorexia and cachexia. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2002;29(3):517-32.
  150. Bruera E, Valero V, Driver L, Shen L, Willey J, Zhang T, et al. Patient-controlled methylphenidate for cancer fatigue: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24(13):2073-8.
  151. Fainsinger RL, Bruera E. When to treat dehydration in a terminally ill patient? Support Care Cancer. 1997;5(3):205-11.
  152. Viola RA, Wells GA, Peterson J. The effects of fluid status and fluid therapy on the dying: a systematic review. J Palliat Care. 1997;13(4):41-52.
  153. Burge FI. Dehydration and provision of fluids in palliative care. What is the evidence? Can Fam Physician. 1996;42:2383-8.
  154. Dalal S, Bruera E. Dehydration in cancer patients: to treat or not to treat. J Support Oncol. 2004;2(6):467-79, 483.
  155. Rochon PA, Gill SS, Litner J, Fischbach M, Goodison AJ, Gordon M. A systematic review of the evidence for hypodermoclysis to treat dehydration in older people. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1997;52(3):M169-M176.
  156. 156. Turner T, Cassano AM. Subcutaneous dextrose for rehydration of elderly patients--an evidence- based review. BMC Geriatr. 2004;4:2.
  157. Gallagher R. An approach to dyspnea in advanced disease. Can Fam Physician. 2003;49:1611-6.
  158. 158. Chan K, Sham M, Tse D, Thorsen A. Palliative medicine in malignant respiratory disease. In: Doyle D, Hanks G, Chreney N, Calman K, editors. Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine. Third ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2004.
  159. Congleton J, Muers MF. The incidence of airflow obstruction in bronchial carcinoma, its relation to breathlessness, and response to bronchodilator therapy. Respiratory Medicine. 1995;89(4):291-6.
  160. Dorman S, Byrne A, Edwards A. Which measurement scales should we use to measure breathlessness in palliative care? A systematic review. Palliat Med. 2007;21(3):177-91.
  161. Gallagher R, Roberts D. A systematic review of oxygen and airflow effect on relief of dyspnea at rest in patients with advanced disease of any cause. Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy. 2004;18(4):3-15.
  162. Booth S, Wade R, Johnson M, Kite S, Swannick M, Anderson H. The use of oxygen in the palliation of breathlessness. A report of the expert working group of the Scientific Committee of the Association of Palliative Medicine. Respir Med 2004;98(1):66-77.
  163. Jennings A-L, Davies AN, Higgins JPT, Gibbs JSR, Broadley KE. A systematic review of the use of opioids in the management of dyspnoea. Thorax. 2002;57(11):939-44.
  164. Abernethy AP, Currow DC, Frith P, Fazekas BS, McHugh A, Bui C. Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled crossover trial of sustained release morphine for the management of refractory dyspnoea. BMJ. 2003;327(7414):523-8.
  165. Viola R, Kiteley C, Lloyd N, Mackay JA, Wilson R, and the Supportive Care Guidelines Group. The Management of Dyspnea in Cancer Patients: A Clinical Practice Guideline. A Quality Initiative of the Program in Evidence-based Care (PEBC). Disponible en: www cancercare on ca/ [accedido en: septiembre 2007] 2007
  166. Navigante AH, Cerchietti LCA, Castro MA, Lutteral MA, Cabalar ME. Midazolam as Adjunct Therapy to Morphine in the Alleviation of Severe Dyspnea Perception in Patients with Advanced Cancer. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 2006;31(1):38-47.
  167. Eng D. Management guidelines for motor neurone disease patients on non-invasive ventilation at home. Palliat Med. 2006;20(2):69-79.
  168. Watson MS, Lucas C.F, Hoy AM, Back IN. Respiratory symptoms. Oxford Handbook of Palliative Care. New York: Oxford University press; 2005. p. 295-307.
  169. Homsi J, Walsh D, Nelson KA. Important drugs for cough in advanced cancer. Support Care Cancer. 2001;9(8):565-74.
  170. Estfan B, LeGrand S. Management of cough in advanced cancer. J Support Oncol. 2004;2(6):523-7.
  171. Lester JF, Macbeth FR, Toy E, Coles B. Palliative radiotherapy regimens for non-small cell lung cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;(4):CD002143.
  172. Kvale PA. Chronic cough due to lung tumors: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest. 2006;129(1 Suppl):147S-53S.
  173. Ung YC, Yu E, Falkson C, Haynes AE, Stys-Norman D, Evans WK, et al. The role of high-dose-rate brachytherapy in the palliation of symptoms in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer: A systematic review. Brachytherapy. 2006;5(3):189-202.
  174. Homsi J, Walsh D, Nelson KA, Sarhill N, Rybicki L, LeGrand SB, et al. A phase II study of hydrocodone for cough in advanced cancer. American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. 2002;19(1):49-56.
  175. Luporini G, Barni S, Marchi E, Daffonchio L. Efficacy and safety of levodropropizine and dihydrocodeine on nonproductive cough in primary and metastatic lung cancer. Eur Respir J. 1998;12(1):97-101.
  176. Moroni M, Porta C, Gualtieri G, Nastasi G, Tinelli C. Inhaled sodium cromoglycate to treat cough in advanced lung cancer patients. British Journal of Cancer. 1996;74:309-11.
  177. Braman SS. Chronic Cough Due to Chronic Bronchitis: ACCP Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest. 2006;129(1_suppl):104S-115.
  178. Drews RE. Superior vena cava syndrome. In: UpToDate RB, editor. UpToDate.Waltham,MA: UpToDate; 2007.
  179. Rowell NP, Gleeson FV. Steroids, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and stents for superior vena caval obstruction in carcinoma of the bronchus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001;(4):CD001316.
  180. Uberoi R. Quality assurance guidelines for superior vena cava stenting in malignant disease. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2006;29(3):319-22.
  181. Wilson P, Bezjak A, Asch M, Barton R, Wong R, Levin W, et al. The difficulties of a randomized study in superior vena caval obstruction. J Thorac Oncol. 2007;2(6):514-9.
  182. Centeno C, Sanz A, Bruera E. Delirium in advanced cancer patients. Palliat Med. 2004;18(3): 184-94.
  183. American Psychiatric Association. American Psychiatric Association diagnostic and statistical manual of mentaldisorders 4 th edition (DSM-IV). Whasington DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2004.
  184. Keeley PW. Delirium at the end of the life. In: BMJ Publishing Group, editor. Clinical evidence. London: 2007. p. 2405.
  185. Centeno C, Vara F, Pérez P, Sanz A, Bruera E. Presentación clínica e identificación del delirium en el cáncer avanzado. Medicina Paliativa. 2003;10:24-35.
  186. Casarett DJ, Inouye SK, for the American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine End-of-Life Care Consensus Panel*. Diagnosis and Management of Delirium near the End of Life. Ann Intern Med. 2001;135(1):32-40.
  187. Inouye SK, van Dyck CH, Alessi CA, Balkin S, Siegal AP, Horwitz RI. Clarifying confusion: the confusion assessment method. A new method for detection of delirium. Ann Intern Med. 1990;113(12):941-8.
  188. National Guidelines for seniors’ mental health.The assessment and treatment of delirium. Toronto: Canadian coalition for seniors’ mental health; 2006.
  189. Breitbart W, Chochinov HM, Passik SD. Psychiatric symptoms in palliative medicine. In: Doyle D, Hanks G, Chreney N, Calman K, editors. Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine. Third ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2004.
  190. 190. Jackson KC, Lipman AG. Drug therapy for delirium in terminally ill patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(2):CD004770.
  191. Breitbart W, Strout D. Delirium in the terminally ill. Clin Geriatr Med. 2000;16(2):357-72.
  192. Savard J, Morin CM. Insomnia in the Context of Cancer: A Review of a Neglected Problem. J Clin Oncol. 2001;19(3):895-908. 193. Santaeia MJ, Santulli RB. Sleep in palliative care. In: Doyle D, Hanks G, Chreney N, Calman K, editors. Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine. Third ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2004.
  193. Smith MT, Perlis ML, Park A, Smith MS, Pennington J, Giles DE, et al. Comparative meta-analysis of pharmacotherapy and behavior therapy for persistent insomnia. Am J Psychiatry. 2002;159(1):5-11.
  194. Santaeia MJ, Santulli RB. Sleep in palliative care. In: Doyle D, Hanks G, Chreney N, Calman K, editors. Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine. Third ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2004.
  195. Morgan K, Dixon S, Mathers N, Thompson J, Tomeny M. Psychological treatment for insomnia in the regulation of long-term hypnotic drug use. Health Technol Assess. 2004;8(8):iii-68.
  196. Hirst A, Sloan R. Benzodiazepines and related drugs for insomnia in palliative care. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(4):CD003346.
  197. Block SD. Assessing and managing depression in the terminally ill patient. ACP-ASIM End-of-Life Care Consensus Panel. American College of Physicians - American Society of Internal Medicine. Ann Intern Med. 2000;132(3):209-18.
  198. Jackson KC, Lipman AG. Drug therapy for anxiety in palliative care. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(1):CD004596.
  199. Osborn RL, Demoncada AC, Feuerstein M. Psychosocial interventions for depression, anxiety, and quality of life in cancer survivors: meta-analyses. Int J Psychiatry Med. 2006;36(1):13-34.
  200. Edwards AG, Hailey S, Maxwell M. Psychological interventions for women with metastatic breast cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(2):CD004253.
  201. Chochinov HM, Holland JC. Handbook of psycho-oncolgy:Psycological care of the patient with cancer. In: JC Holland and JH Rowland, editor.New York: Oxford University Press; 1998.
  202. de SE, Jepson BA. Midazolam in terminal care. Lancet. 1988;1(8575-6):67-8.
  203. Carr DB, Goudas L, Lawrence D, et al. Management of cancer symptoms: pain, depression and fatigue. Evidence Report/technology Assessment Number 61.Prepared by the New England Medical Center Evidence-Based Practice Center under Contract No 290-97-0019). AHRQ Publication No. 02-E032. Rockville,MD:Agence for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2002.
  204. Ford S, Fallowfield L, Lewis S. Can oncologists detect distress in their out-patients and how satisfied are they with their performance during bad news consultations? Br J Cancer. 1994;70(4):767-70.
  205. Chochinov HM, Wilson KG, Enns M, Lander S. «Are you depressed?» Screening for depression in the terminally ill. Am J Psychiatry. 1997;154(5):674-6.
  206. Chochinov HM, Wilson KG, Enns M, Mowchun N, Lander S, Levitt M, et al. Desire for death in the terminally ill. Am J Psychiatry. 1995;152(8):1185-91.
  207. Rodin G, Lloyd N, Katz M, Green E, Mackay JA, Wong RK. The treatment of depression in cancer patients: a systematic review. Support Care Cancer. 2007;15(2):123-36.
  208. Sood A, Barton DL, Loprinzi CL. Use of methylphenidate in patients with cancer. American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. 2006;23(1):35-40.
  209. Wilson KG. Diagnosis and management of depression in Pallaitive care. In: Chochinov HM, Breitbart W, editors. Handbook of psychiatry in palliative medicine.New York: Oxford University Press; 2000. p. 25-44.
  210. Hem E, Loge JH, Haldorsen T, Ekeberg O. Suicide risk in cancer patients from 1960 to 1999. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22(20):4209-16.
  211. Assessment, Evaluation, and Management of Suicidal Patients. Disponible en http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/supportivecare/depression/HealthProfessional/page5.PDQ® Cancer Information Summaries: Supportive Care. Depression (PDQ®). National Cancer Institute.; 2007.
  212. De Conno F, Sbanotto A, Ripamonti C, Ventafrida V. Mouth care. In: Doyle D, Hanks G, Chreney N, Calman K, editors. Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine. Third ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2004. p. 1117-33.
  213. Worthington H, Clarkson J, Eden O. Interventions for preventing oral mucositis for patients with cancer receiving treatment. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2007;2.
  214. Clarkson J, Worthington H, Eden O. Interventions for treating oral mucositis for patients with cancer receiving treatment. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2007;2, 2007.
  215. Keefe DM, Schubert MM, Elting LS, Sonis ST, Epstein JB, Raber-Durlacher JE, et al. Updated clinical practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of mucositis. Cancer. 2007;109(5):820-31.
  216. Barasch A, Elad S, Altman A, Damato K, Epstein J. Antimicrobials, mucosal coating agents, anesthetics, analgesics, and nutritional supplements for alimentary tract mucositis. Support Care Cancer. 2006;14(6):528-32.
  217. Peterson DE, Jones JB, Petit RG. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of Saforis for prevention and treatment of oral mucositis in breast cancer patients receiving anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Cancer. 2007;109(2):322-31.
  218. Rosen LS, Abdi E, Davis ID, Gutheil J, Schnell FM, Zalcberg J, et al. Palifermin reduces the incidence of oral mucositis in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with fluorouracil- based chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24(33):5194-200.
  219. Oneschuk D, Hanson J, Bruera E, Oneschuk D, Hanson J, Bruera E. A survey of mouth pain and dryness in patients with advanced cancer.[see comment]. Supportive Care in Cancer. 2000;8(5):372-6.
  220. Dirix P, Nuyts S, Vander Poorten V, Delaere P, Van den Bogaert W. The influence of xerostomia after rediotherapy on quality of life: results of a Support Care Cancer. 2008;16(2):171-9.
  221. Symptomatic Treatment of Radiation-Induced Xerostomia in Head and Neck Cancer Patients. Practice Guideline Report # 5-5. Head & Neck Cancer Evidence-based Series and Practice Guidelines 2004http://www.cancercare.on.ca/pdf/full5_1.pdf [Acceso Junio 2007]
  222. Davies A, Shorthose K. Parasympathomimetic drugs for the treatment of salivary gland dysfunction due to radiotherapy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;(3):CD003782.
  223. von B, I, Sollecito TP, Fox PC, Daniels T, Jonsson R, Lockhart PB, et al. Salivary dysfunction associated with systemic diseases: systematic review and clinical management recommendations. [Review] [163 refs]. Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology Oral Radiology & Endodontics. 2007;103 Suppl:S57-15.
  224. Watson MS, Lucas C.F, Hoy AM, Back IN. Gastrointestinal symptoms. Oxford Handbook of Palliative Care.New York: Oxford University press; 2005. p. 237-82.
  225. Pappas PG, Rex JH, Sobel JD, Filler SG, Dismukes WE, Walsh TJ, et al. Guidelines for treatment of candidiasis. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38(2):161-89.
  226. Pankhurst CL. Candidiasis (oropharyngeal). Clin Evid. 2006;(15):1849-63.
  227. Clarkson J, Worthington H, Eden O. Interventions for preventing oral candidiasis for patients with cancer receiving treatment. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2007;2.
  228. Worthington H, Clarkson J, Eden O. Interventions for treating oral candidiasis for patients with cancer receiving treatment. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2007;2.
  229. Regnard C. Dysphagia, dyspepsia, and hiccup. In: Doyle D, Hanks G, Chreney N, Calman K, editors. Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine. Third ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2004. p. 459-68.
  230. Javle M, Ailawadhi S, Yang GY, Nwogu CE, Schiff MD, Nava HR. Palliation of malignant dysphagia in esophageal cancer: a literature-based review. J Support Oncol. 2006;4(8):365-73, 379.
  231. Keeley PW. Nausea and vomiting in people with cancer and other chronic diseases. Clinical Evidence. London: BMJ Publishing Group; 2007. p. 1-12.
  232. Glare P, Pereira G, Kristjanson LJ, Stockler M, Tattersall M. Systematic review of the efficacy of antiemetics in the treatment of nausea in patients with far-advanced cancer 2. Support Care Cancer. 2004;12(6):432-40.
  233. Kris MG, Hesketh PJ, Somerfield MR, Feyer P, Clark-Snow R, Koeller JM, et al. American Society of Clinical Oncology Guideline for Antiemetics in Oncology: Update 2006. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24(18):2932-47.
  234. Ioannidis JP, Hesketh PJ, Lau J. Contribution of dexamethasone to control of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a meta-analysis of randomized evidence. J Clin Oncol. 2000;18(19):3409-22.
  235. Jantunen IT, Kataja VV, Muhonen TT. An overview of randomised studies comparing 5-HT3 receptor antagonists to conventional anti-emetics in the prophylaxis of acute chemotherapy-induced vomiting. Eur J Cancer. 1997;33(1):66-74.
  236. Poli-Bigelli S, Rodrigues-Pereira J, Carides AD, Julie MG, Eldridge K, Hipple A, et al. Addition of the neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist aprepitant to standard antiemetic therapy improves control of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Results from a randomized, double- blind, placebo-controlled trial in Latin America. Cancer. 2003;97(12):3090-8.
  237. Tramer MR, Carroll D, Campbell FA, Reynolds DJ, Moore RA, McQuay HJ. Cannabinoids for control of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting: quantitative systematic review. BMJ. 2001;323(7303):16-21.
  238. Tramer MR, Reynolds DJ, Stoner NS, Moore RA, McQuay HJ. Efficacy of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a quantitative systematic review. Eur J Cancer. 1998;34(12):1836-44.
  239. Sykes AJ, Kiltie AE, Stewart AL. Ondansetron versus a chlorpromazine and dexamethasone combination for the prevention of nausea and vomiting: a prospective, randomised study to assess efficacy, cost effectiveness and quality of life following single-fraction radiotherapy. Support Care Cancer. 1997;5(6):500-3.
  240. Supportive Care & Symptom Control Regimens. Management of Chemotherapy-induced Nausea and Vomiting. Disponible en http://www.cancercare on ca/pdfchemo/NVguidelines.pdf [accedido en: septiembre 2007]
  241. Hoskin P. Radiotherapy in symptom management. In: Doyle D, Hanks G, Chreney N, Calman K, editors. Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine. Third ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2004. p. 239-59.
  242. Cancer care Ontario Practice Guidelines Initiative. Use of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in patients receiving moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Disponible en: www.cancercare.on.ca/ [accedido en: septiembre 2007]
  243. Critchley P, Plach N, Grantham M, Marshall D, Taniguchi A, Latimer E, et al. Efficacy of haloperidol in the treatment of nausea and vomiting in the palliative patient: A systematic review [3]. Journal of Pain & Symptom Management. 2001;22(2):631-4.
  244. Aapro MS, Molassiotis A, Olver I. Anticipatory nausea and vomiting. Support Care Cancer. 2005;13(2):117-21.
  245. Ahmedzai SH, Boland j. Constipation in people prescribed opioids. In: BMJ Publishing Group, editor. Clinical Evidence. London: 2007. p. 2407.
  246. Miles CL, Fellowes D, Goodman ML, Wilkinson S. Laxatives for the management of constipation in palliative care patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;(4):CD003448.
  247. Sykes N. Constipation and diarrhoea. In: Doyle D, Hanks G, Chreney N, Calman K, editors. Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine. Third ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2004. p. 483-96.
  248. Benson AB, III, Ajani JA, Catalano RB, Engelking C, Kornblau SM, Martenson JA, Jr., et al. Recommended guidelines for the treatment of cancer treatment-induced diarrhea. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22(14):2918-26.
  249. Cascinu S, Bichisao E, Amadori D, Silingardi V, Giordani P, Sansoni E, et al. High-dose loperamide in the treatment of 5-fluorouracil-induced diarrhea in colorectal cancer patients. Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer. 2000;8:65-7.
  250. Geller RB, Gilmore CE, Dix SP, Lin LS, Topping DL, Davidson TG, et al. Randomized trial of loperamide versus dose escalation of octreotide acetate for chemotherapy-induced diarrhea in bone marrow transplant and leukemia patients. American journal of hematology. 1995;50:167-72.
  251. Pezzella G, Pisconti S. Octreotide versus loperamide in controlling chemotherapy-induced diarrhoea. Giornale Italiano di Oncologia. 1994;14:79-82.
  252. Cascinu S, Fedeli A, Fedeli SL, Catalano G. Octreotide versus loperamide in the treatment of fluorouracil-induced diarrhea: a randomized trial. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 1993;11:148-51.
  253. Sherman DM, Mangini L, Poirier P, Kadish SP. Double-blind comparison of loperamide and placebo in the treatment of radiation-induced diarrhea. ADV THER. 1989;6:103-11.
  254. 254. Szilagyi A, Shrier I. Systematic review: the use of somatostatin or octreotide in refractory diarrhoea. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2001;15(12):1889-97.
  255. 255. Ripamonti C, Mercadante S. Pathophysiology and management of malignant bowel obstruction. In: Doyle D, Hanks G, Chreney N, Calman K, editors. Third ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2004. p. 496-507.
  256. Ripamonti C, Twycross R, Baines M, Bozzetti F, Capri S, De Conno F, et al. Clinical-practice recommendations for the management of bowel obstruction in patients with end-stage cancer. Supportive Care in Cancer. 2001;9(4):223-33.
  257. Watt AMB, Faragher IGF, Griffin TTP, Rieger NAM, Maddern GJP. Self-expanding Metallic Stents for Relieving Malignant Colorectal Obstruction: A Systematic Review. [Review]. Annals of Surgery. 2007;246(1):24-30.
  258. Fiori E, Lamazza A, De CA, Bononi M, Volpino P, Schillaci A, et al. Palliative management of malignant rectosigmoidal obstruction. Colostomy vs. endoscopic stenting. A randomized prospective trial. Anticancer Res. 2004;24(1):265-8.
  259. Xinopoulos D, Dimitroulopoulos D, Theodosopoulos T, Tsamakidis K, Bitsakou G, Plataniotis G, et al. Stenting or stoma creation for patients with inoperable malignant colonic obstructions? Results of a study and cost-effectiveness analysis. Surg Endosc. 2004;18(3):421-6.
  260. Feuer DJ, Broadley KE. Corticosteroids for the resolution of malignant bowel obstruction in advanced gynaecological and gastrointestinal cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD001219.
  261. Mercadante S, Casuccio A, Mangione S. Medical Treatment for Inoperable Malignant Bowel Obstruction: A Qualitative Systematic Review. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 2007;33(2):217-23.
  262. Kichian K, Vain BG. Jaundice, ascites, and hepatic encephalopathy. In: Doyle D, Hanks G, Chreney N, Calman K, editors. Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine. Third ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2004.
  263. Becker G, Galandi D, Blum HE. Malignant ascites: systematic review and guideline for treatment. Eur J Cancer. 2006;42(5):589-97.
  264. Smith HS, Busracamwongs A. Management of hiccups in the palliative care population. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2003;20(2):149-54.
  265. Fishman M. Overview of hiccups. In: UpToDate RB, editor. Waltham, MA: UpToDate; 2007.
  266. Royal College of Nursing and National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. The management of pressure ulcers in primary and secondary care A Clinical Practice Guideline. London: Royal College of Nursing; 2005.
  267. Cullum N, McInnes E, Bell-Syer SE, Legood R, Cullum N, McInnes E, et al. Support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention.[see comment][update of Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD001735; PMID: 10796662]. [Review] [101 refs]. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2004;(3):CD001735.
  268. Reddy M, Gill SS, Rochon PA, Reddy M, Gill SS, Rochon PA. Preventing pressure ulcers: a systematic review. JAMA. 2006;296(8):974-84.
  269. Gallart E, Fuentelsaz C, Vivas G, Garnacho I, Font L, Aran R. Estudio experimental para comprobar la efectividad de los ácidos grasos hiperoxigenados en la prevenciónde las úlceras por presión en pacientes ingresados. ENFERM CLIN. 1928;2001;11(5):179-83.
  270. Flock P. Pilot study to determine the effectiveness of diamorphine gel to control pressure ulcer pain. J PAIN SYMPTOM MANAGE. 2003;25(6):547-54.
  271. Adderley U. Topical agents and dressings for fungating wounds. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2007;2, 2007.
  272. Murtagh FE, ddington-Hall J, Higginson IJ. The prevalence of symptoms in end-stage renal disease: a systematic review. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2007;14(1):82-99.
  273. Heinrich WL. Uremic pruritus. In: UpToDate RB, editor. UpToDate.Waltham,MA: UpToDate; 2007.
  274. Lidstone V, Thorns A. Pruritus in cancer patients. Cancer Treat Rev. 2001;27(5):305-12.
  275. Khurana S, Singh P. Rifampin is safe for treatment of pruritus due to chronic cholestasis: a meta-analysis of prospective randomized-controlled trials. Liver Int. 2006;26(8):943-8.
  276. Kaplan M, Chopra S. Pruritus associated with cholestasis. In: UpToDate RB, editor. UpToDate. Waltham,MA: UpToDate; 2007.
  277. Twycross R, Greaves MW, Handwerker H, Jones EA, Libretto SE, Szepietowski JC, et al. Itch: scratching more than the surface. QJM. 2003;96(1):7-26.
  278. Zylicz Z, Krajnik M, Sorge AA, Costantini M. Paroxetine in the treatment of severe non-dermatological pruritus: a randomized, controlled trial. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2003;26(6):1105-12.
  279. Zylicz Z, Stork N, Krajnik M. Severe pruritus of cholestasis in disseminated cancer: developing a rational treatment strategy. A case report. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2005;29(1):100-3.
  280. Watson MS, Lucas C.F, Hoy AM, Back IN. Skin problems in palliative care. Oxford Handbook of Palliative Care. New York: Oxford University press; 2005.
  281. Davis MP, Frandsen JL, Walsh D, Andresen S, Taylor S. Mirtazapine for pruritus. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2003;25(3):288-91.
  282. Norman R, Bailly G. Genito-urinay problems in palliative medicine. In: Doyle D, Hanks G, Chreney N, Calman K, editors. Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine. Third ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2004.
  283. Agus Z.S, Berenson J.R. Treatment of hypercalcemia. In: UpToDate RB, editor. UpToDate.Waltham,MA: UpToDate; 2007.
  284. Bower M, Cox S. Endocrine and metabolic complications of advanced cancer. In: Doyle D, Hanks G, Chreney N, Calman K, editors. Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine. Third ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2004.
  285. Saunders Y, Ross JR, Broadley KE, Edmonds PM, Patel S. Systematic review of bisphosphonates for hypercalcaemia of malignancy. Palliat Med. 2004;18(5):418-31.
  286. GPT 1. Guía de Prescripción Terapéutica. Información de medicamentos autorizados en España. Adaptación española del BNF (British National Formulary). Barcelona: Agencia Española de Medicamento y Productos SanitariosPharma Editores,S.L.; 2006.
  287. Watson MS, Lucas C.F, Hoy AM, Back IN. Emergencies in palliative care. Oxford Handbook of Palliative Care. New York: Oxford University press; 2005.
  288. Schiff D. Treatment and prognosis of epidural spinal cord compressión, incluiding cauda equina syndrome. In: UpToDate RB, editor. UpToDate.Waltham,MA: UpToDate; 2007.
  289. Loblaw DA, Perry J, Chambers A, Laperriere NJ. Systematic review of the diagnosis and management of malignant extradural spinal cord compression: the Cancer Care Ontario Practice Guidelines Initiative’s Neuro-Oncology Disease Site Group. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(9):2028-37.
  290. Talcott JA, Stomper PC, Drislane FW, Wen PY, Block CC, Humphrey CC, et al. Assessing suspected spinal cord compression: a multidisciplinary outcomes analysis of 342 episodes. Support Care Cancer. 1999;7(1):31-8.
  291. Klimo P, Jr., Thompson CJ, Kestle JRW, Schmidt MH. A meta-analysis of surgery versus conventional radiotherapy for the treatment of metastatic spinal epidural disease. Neuro-oncol. 2005;7(1):64-76.
  292. Patchell RA, Tibbs PA, Regine WF, Payne R, Saris S, Kryscio RJ, et al. Direct decompressive surgical resection in the treatment of spinal cord compression caused by metastatic cancer: a randomised trial. Lancet. 2005;366(9486):643-8.
  293. Alldredge BK, Gelb AM, Isaacs SM, Corry MD, Allen F, Ulrich S, et al. A comparison of lorazepam, diazepam, and placebo for the treatment of out-of-hospital status epilepticus. N Engl J Med. 2001;345(9):631-7.
  294. Cock HR, Schapira AH. A comparison of lorazepam and diazepam as initial therapy in convulsive status epilepticus. QJM. 2002;95(4):225-31.
  295. Bausewein C, Borasio GD. Symptom management. Brain tumours. In: Doyle D, Hanks G, Chreney N, Calman K, editors. Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine. Third ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2004.
  296. Singh G, Rees JH, Sander JW. Seizures and epilepsy in oncological practice: causes, course, mechanisms and treatment. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2007;78(4):342-9.
  297. Caraceni A, Martini C, Simonetti F. Neurological problems in advanced cancer. In: Doyle D, Hanks G, Chreney N, Calman K, editors. Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine. Third ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2004. p. 703-26.
  298. Dreifuss FE, Rosman NP, Cloyd JC, Pellock JM, Kuzniecky RI, Lo WD, et al. A comparison of rectal diazepam gel and placebo for acute repetitive seizures. N Engl J Med. 1998;338(26):1869-75.
  299. Milligan NM, Dhillon S, Griffiths A, Oxley J, Richens A. A clinical trial of single dose rectal and oral administration of diazepam for the prevention of serial seizures in adult epileptic patients. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1984;47(3):235-40.
  300. Rees J. Fits. In: Sykes N, Edmonds P, Wiles J, editors. Management of advanced disease. Fourth ed. London: Arnold; 2004. p. 240-9.
  301. Sirven JI, Wingerchuk DM, Drazkowski JF, Lyons MK, Zimmerman RS. Seizure prophylaxis in patients with brain tumors: a meta-analysis. Mayo Clin Proc. 2004;79(12):1489-94.
  302. Taillibert S, Delattre JY. Palliative care in patients with brain metastases. Curr Opin Oncol. 2005;17(6):588-92. 303. Gagnon B, Mancini I, Pereira J, Bruera E. Palliative management of bleeding events in advanced cancer patients. J Palliat Care. 1998;14(4):50-4.
  303. Gagnon B, Mancini I, Pereira J, Bruera E. Palliative management of bleeding events in advanced cancer patients. J Palliat Care. 1998;14(4):50-4.
  304. Pereira J, Phan T. Management of bleeding in patients with advanced cancer. Oncologist. 2004;9(5):561-70.
  305. Prommer E. Management of bleeding in the terminally ill patient. Hematology. 2005;10(3):167-75.
  306. Block SD. Psychological issues in end-of-life care. J Palliat Med. 2006;9(3):751-72.
  307. Newell SA, Sanson-Fisher RW, Savolainen NJ. Systematic Review of Psychological Therapies for Cancer Patients: Overview and Recommendations for Future Research. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002;94(8):558-84.
  308. 308. Uitterhoeve RJ, Vernooy M, Litjens M, Potting K, Bensing J, De MP, et al. Psychosocial interventions for patients with advanced cancer - A systematic review of the literature. British Journal of Cancer. 2004;91(6):1050-62.
  309. Payne S, Kerr C, Hawker S, Hardey M, Powell J. The communication of information about older people between health and social care practitioners. Age Ageing. 2002;31(2):107-17.
  310. Holloway M. Death the great leveller? Towards a transcultural spirituality of dying and bereavement. J Clin Nurs. 2006;15(7):833-9.
  311. Pargament KI, Koenig HG, Perez LM. The many methods of religious coping: development and initial validation of the RCOPE. J Clin Psychol. 2000;56(4):519-43.
  312. Bayés Sopena R, Borràs Hernández FX. ¿Qué son las necesidades espirituales? Medicina Paliativa. 2005;12(2):99-107.
  313. Post SG, Puchalski CM, Larson DB. Physicians and Patient Spirituality: Professional Boundaries, Competency, and Ethics. Ann Intern Med. 2000;132(7):578-83.
  314. Puchalski CM, Kilpatrick SD, McCullough ME, Larson DB. A systematic review of spiritual and religious variables in Palliative Medicine, American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care, Hospice Journal, Journal of Palliative Care, and Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. Palliat Support Care. 2003;1(1):7-13.
  315. Lin HR, Bauer-Wu SM. Psycho-spiritual well-being in patients with advanced cancer: an integrative review of the literature. J Adv Nurs. 2003;44(1):69-80.
  316. Proot IM, bu-Saad HH, Crebolder HF, Goldsteen M, Luker KA, Widdershoven GA, et al. Vulnerability of family caregivers in terminal palliative care at home; balancing between burden and capacity. Scand J Caring Sci. 2003;17(2):113-21.
  317. Harding R, Higginson IJ. What is the best way to help caregivers in cancer and palliative care? A systematic literature review of interventions and their effectiveness. Palliat Med. 2003;17(1):63-74.
  318. Fürst CJ, Doyle D. The terminal phase. In: Doyle D, Hanks G, Chreney N, Calman K, editors. Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine. Third ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2004. p. 1117-33.
  319. Conill C, Verger E, Henriquez I, Saiz N, Espier M, Lugo F, et al. Symptom prevalence in the last week of life. J Pain Symptom Manage. 1997;14(6):328-31.
  320. Oi-Ling K, Man-Wah DT, Kam-Hung DN. Symptom distress as rated by advanced cancer patients, caregivers and physicians in the last week of life. Palliat Med. 2005;19(3):228-33.
  321. Ellershaw J, Ward C. Care of the dying patient: the last hours or days of life. BMJ. 2003;326(7379):30-4.
  322. Wildiers H, Menten J. Death Rattle: Prevalence, Prevention and Treatment. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 2002;23(4):310-7.
  323. Morita T, Tsuneto S, Shima Y. Definition of sedation for symptom relief: A systematic literature review and a proposal of operational criteria. Journal of Pain & Symptom Management. 2002;24(4):447-53.
  324. Morita T, Bito S, Kurihara Y, Uchitomi Y. Development of a clinical guideline for palliative sedation therapy using the Delphi method. J Palliat Med. 2005;8(4):716-29.
  325. Engstrom J, Bruno E, Holm B, Hellzen O. Palliative sedation at end of life - a systematic literature review. Eur J Oncol Nurs. 2007;11(1):26-35.
  326. Sedación en cuidados paliativos. Grupo de trabajo de Tratamientos del Programa Regional de Cuidados Paliativos del Servicio Extremeño de Salud 2006 http://www.secpal.com/guiasm/index.php?acc=see_guia&id_guia=8
  327. Mattia C, Savoia G, Paoletti F, Piazza O, Albanese D, Amantea B, et al. SIAARTI recommendations for analgo-sedation in intensive care unit. Minerva Anestesiol. 2006;72(10):769-805.
  328. Cowan JD, Walsh D. Terminal sedation in palliative medicine--definition and review of the literature. Support Care Cancer. 2001;9(6):403-7.
  329. Krakauer EL, Penson RT, Truog RD, King LA, Chabner BA, Lynch TJ, Jr. Sedation for intractable distress of a dying patient: acute palliative care and the principle of double effect. Oncologist. 2000;5(1):53-62.
  330. Porta-Sales J. Sedación paliativa. In: Porta-Sales J, Gomez-Batiste X, Tuca A, editors. Manual de control de síntomas en pacientes con cáncer avanzado y terminal.Madrid: Editorial Arán; 2004. p. 259-70. 331. Ley 41/2002, de 14 de noviembre, básica reguladora de la autonomía del paciente y de derechos y obligaciones en materia de información y documentación clínica. BOE 274 ed. 2002.
  331. Landa V, García-García J. Duelo.Fisterra. Guias Clínicas.2007;7 (26). Disponible en http://www.fisterra.com [Acceso Julio 2007].
  332. Genevro Jl, Marshall T, Miller T. Report on Bereavement an Grief Research. Washington DC: Center for the Advancement of Health. Disponible en: http://www.cfah.org/pdfs/griefreport. pdf [Acceso Julio 2007].
  333. Wimpenny P, Unwin R, Dempster P, Grundy M, Work F, Brown A, et al. Literature review on bereavement and bereavement care [Internet]. Aberdeen; 2006.
  334. Maciejewski PK, Zhang B, Block SD, Prigerson HG. An empirical examination of the stage theory of grief. JAMA. 2007;297(7):716-23.
  335. Dohrenwend BS, Krasnoff L, Askenasy AR, Dohrenwend BP. The Psychiatric Epidemiology Research Interview Life Events Scale. In: Mezzich JE, Jorge MR, Salloum IM, editors. Psychiatric Epidemiology. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press; 1994. p. 401-36.
  336. Holmes TH, Rahe TH. The Social Readjustment Rating Scale. J Psychosom Res. 2007;11:213-8.
  337. Stroebe MS, Hansson RO, Stroebe W, Schut H. Introduction: concepts and issues in contemporary research on bereavement. In: Stroebe M, Hansonn RO, Stroebe W, Schut H, editors. Handbook of Bereavement Research: Consequences, coping, and care.Washington DC: American Psychological Association Press; 2001. p. 3-22.
  338. Genevro Jl, Marshall T, Miller T. Report on Bereavement an Grief Research. Washington DC: Center for the Advancement of Health. Disponible en: http://www.cfah.org/pdfs/griefreport.pdf [Acceso Julio 2007].
  339. Genevro Jl, Marshall T, Miller T. Report on Bereavement an Grief Research. Washington DC: Center for the Advancement of Health. Disponible en: http://www.cfah.org/pdfs/griefreport.pdf [Acceso Julio 2007].
  340. Aranda S, Milne D. Guidelines for the assessment of bereavement risk in family members of people receiving palliative care. Melbourne: Centre for Pallaitive Care; 2000.
  341. Forte AL, Hill M, Pazder R, Feudtner C. Bereavement care interventions: a systematic review. BMC Palliat Care. 2004;3(1):3.
  342. Fortner B. The effectiveness of grief counseling and therapy: a quantitative review [Tesis doctoral] Memphis University; 1999.
  343. Kato PM, Mann T. A synthesis of psychological interventions for the bereaved. Clinical Psychology Review. 1999;19(3):275-96.
  344. Kristjanson L, Lobb E, Aoun S. A systematic review of the literature on complicated grief. Disponible en http://www.health.gov.au/ Australia: Australian Government, Department of Health and Ageing [Acceso Julio 2007]
  345. Parkes CM, Weiss RS. Recovery from bereavement. New York: Basic Books; 1983.
  346. García JA, Landa V, Grandes G, Mauriz A, Andollo I. Adaptación al español del Cuestionario de Riesgo de Duelo Complicado (CRDC). Medicina Paliativa. 2002;9(2):11.
  347. Prigerson HG, Vanderwerker LC, Maciejewski PK. Prolonged Grief Disorder: a case for inclusión in DSM-V. In: Stroebe M, Hansson M, Schut H, Stroebe W, editors. Handbook of Bereavement Research and Practice:21 Century Perspectives.Washington DC: American Psycological Association Press; 2007.
  348. Allumbaugh DL, Hoyt W. Effectiveness of grief therapy:a meta-analysis. J Couns Psychol. 1999;46:370-80.
  349. Lautrette AF, Darmon MF, Megarbane BF, Joly LM FAU - Chevret S, Chevret S FAU - Adrie C, Adrie CF, et al. A communication strategy and brochure for relatives of patients dying in the ICU. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:469-78.

Última actualización: 27 de noviembre de 2008

Logo del Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo Logo del Plan de Calidad del Sistema Nacional de SaludLogotipo del Gobierno Vasco

 

Copyright | Ayuda | Mapa